C. Henderson - E.G. Turner, Catalogue of the Greek papyri in the John Rylands library, Manchester, IV. Documents of the Ptolemaic, Roman, and Byzantine periods (Manchester 1952) 117-124 Nr. 627 Z. 212-222.

Z. Weiss, Public spectacles in Roman and late antique Palestine (London - Cambridge 2014) 51. 58. 68. 82.



Schauspieler Apelles

Philo, legatio ad Gaium 203-205:

203 ὁ δὲ διαναγνοὺς πλουσιώτερον καὶ μεγαλοφρονέστερόν τι ἀντὶ τοῦ πλινθίνου βωμοῦ τοῦ κατ’ ἐπήρειαν ἀνασταθέντος ἐν Ἰαμνείᾳ κελεύει ¦ κολοσσιαῖον ἀνδριάντα ἐπίχρυσον ἐν τῷ τῆς μητροπόλεως ἱερῷ καθιδρυθῆναι, συμβούλοις χρησάμενος τοῖς ἀρίστοις καὶ σοφωτάτοις, Ἑλικῶνι τῷ εὐπατρίδῃ δούλῳ, σπερμολόγῳ, περιτρίμματι, καὶ Ἀπελλῇ τινι τραγῳδῷ, ὃς ἀκμῇ μὲν τῆς πρώτης ἡλικίας, ὥς φασιν, ἐκαπήλευσε τὴν ὥραν, ἔξωρος δὲ γενόμενος ἐπὶ τὴν σκηνὴν παρῆλθεν. 204 ὅσοι δὲ σκηνοβατοῦσιν ἐμπορευόμενοι θεαταῖς καὶ θεάτροις, αἰδοῦς εἰσι καὶ σωφροσύνης ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἀναισχυντίας καὶ ἀκοσμίας ἐρασταὶ τῆς ἀνωτάτω; διὰ ταῦτα εἰς τὴν τοῦ συμβούλου τάξιν ὁ Ἀπελλῆς παρῆλθεν, ἵνα βουλεύσηται Γάιος μεθ’ οὗ μὲν ὡς σκωπτέον, μεθ’ οὗ δὲ ὡς ᾀστέον, ὑπερβὰς τὰς περὶ τῶν ὅλων σκέψεις, ὡς εἰρηνεύεσθαι καὶ ἠρεμεῖσθαι τὰ πανταχοῦ πάντα. 205 ὁ μὲν οὖν Ἑλικών, σκορπιῶδες ἀνδράποδον, τὸν Αἰγυπτιακὸν ἰὸν εἰς Ἰουδαίους ἤφιεν, ὁ δὲ Ἀπελλῆς τὸν ἀπὸ Ἀσκάλωνος· ἦν γὰρ ἐκεῖθεν· Ἀσκαλωνίταις δὲ ἀσύμβατός τις καὶ ἀκατάλλακτος δυσμένεια πρὸς τοὺς τῆς ἱερᾶς χώρας οἰκήτορας Ἰουδαίους ἐστὶν οὖσιν ὁμόροις.”

„(203) and he, when he had read the letter, ordered a colossal statue gilt all over, much more costly and much more magnificent than the rich altar which had been erected in Jamnia, by way of insult to be set up in the temple of the metropolis, having for his most excellent and sagacious counsellors Helicon, that man of noble birth, a chattering slave, a perfect scum of the earth, and a fellow of the name of Apelles, a tragic actor, who when in the first bloom of youth, as they say, made a market of his beauty, and when he was past the freshness of youth went on the stage; (204) and in fact all those who go on the stage selling themselves to the spectators, and to the theatres, are not lovers of temperance and modesty, but rather of the most extreme shamelessness and indecency. "On this account Apelles was taken into the rank of a fellow counsellor of the emperor, that Gaius might have an adviser with whom he might indulge in mocking jests, and with whom he might sing, passing over all considerations of the general welfare of the state, as if everything in every quarter of the globe was enjoying profound peace and tranquillity under the laws. (205) "Therefore Helicon, this scorpion-like slave, discharged all his Egyptian venom against the Jews; and Apelles his Ascalonite poison, for he was a native of Ascalon; and between the people of Ascalon and the inhabitants of the holy land, the Jews, there is an irreconcileable and neverending hostility although they are bordering nations."

Lit.: E.M. Smallwood, Philonis Alexandrini Legatio ad Gaium (Leiden 1970).

Marcus Aurelius Pylades

Den Rang des Theaterwesens mag die in Öffnet internen Link im aktuellen FensterOstia gesetzte Inschrift (Öffnet externen Link in neuem FensterCIL XIV 4624b; AE 1998, Nr. 272b (Öffnet externen Link in neuem FensterEDR) des aus Öffnet internen Link im aktuellen FensterSkythopolis stammenden Schauspielers Marcus Aurelius Pylades aus der Zeit von Kaiser Gallienus veranschaulichen. Pylades bekleidete in Öffnet internen Link im aktuellen FensterDamaskus und in Askalon die Würde eines Ratsherrn.